Hydroxyapatite's propensity to adsorb protein is well known, and when supplied in a toothpaste, nano<mHAP>'s particles gather up and help remove plaque fragments and a variety of oral pathogens, in particular the Mutans streptococci family of bacteria, which are known to be a major cause of tooth decay. This bacterial adsorption function of nano<mHAP> has been closely studied in Japan, including with researchers from Japan's National Institute for Infectious Diseases and Nihon University, and results confirm that nano<mHAP> shows superior bacterial adsorption compared with other forms of calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite,1 exhibits strong selectivity for cariogenic Mutans Streptococci2 while also adsorbing a range of periodontal and opportunistic pathogens such as P.gingivalis and Candida,2,3 and may also, with continued use, bring about a modest but benign shift in the oral microbial flora.4

I Nano<mHAP> microbial adsorption studies

        (1) By type of hydroxyapatite (Kondo 1999)
Adsorption schädlicher  Bakterien

(2) By type of microbe (Arakawa 2002)

Adsorption schädlicher  Bakterien

(3) SEM observation (a x 20,000, b,c,d x 50,000) (Fujimaru 2007)

Adsorption schädlicher  Bakterien
Adsorption schädlicher  Bakterien

              a. S.mutans                                             b. P.gingivalis 

             c. A.actinomycetem                                           d. C. albicans

 Examples of microbial adsorption by nano<mHAP> particles

II Reduction of cariogenic Mutans Streptococci in the total oral flora (clinical trial) (Kono 2014)

Adsorption schädlicher  Bakterien

1. Kondo et al, Study of Streptococcus Mutans Adherence to Hydroxyapatite, J Dent Hlth 49(4): 614-615, 1999
(Japanese language)
2. T.Arakawa et al, , J Dent Res 81:1478, San Diego Abstracts, 2002
3. T.Fujimaru et al, Adsorption of Oral Pathogenic Microbes by Small Crystal Hydroxyapatite, J Dent Res 86:1121, New Orleans Abstracts, 2007
4. Y.Kono et al, Development of a Technique for Removing Oral Pathogenic Microorganisms using Hydroxyapatite: Clinical Study Report, Nihon University School of Dentistry 2014 (Unpublished)( Japanese language)

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